Fuel Cell (FC)

The fuel cell is an electrochemical device that uses the chemical energy of hydrogen or other fuel (can be liquid) to produce electrical energy. When the fuel cell is operated with hydrogen, electricity, water and heat are produced as the end product. Generally, fuel cells are classified according to the electrolyte used. The classification also determines other points, such as: the type of electrochemical reaction, the type of catalyst, the operating temperature and the fuel. 

Some types of fuel cells are:

  • Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC)
  • Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC)
  • Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC)
  • Reversible Fuel Cells (RFC)
  • Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)
  • Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC)
  • Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC)



Is a process in which electric current flows through an electrolytic solution or suitable fluid to cause a chemical reaction (for example: Electrolysis of water to produce oxygen and hydrogen).


Is a compound that can conduct charged particles or electricity. In fuel cells, the electrolyte has the task of transporting ions between the electrodes (anode and cathode). In addition, electrons cannot be exchanged via the electrolyte, as it is impermeable to electrons.


An electrode is a conductor through which electrons exit or enter an electrolyte. Fuel cells and batteries have a negative and a positive electrode. The positive electrode is called the cathode and the negative electrode the anode.


The anode is the electrode where oxidation (= loss of electrons) occurs. In fuel cells, the anode is the negative pole. In electrolytic cells, the anode is the positive pole.


A chemical reduction takes place at the electrode (increase in electrons). In fuel cells and other galvanic cells, the cathode is the positive voltage terminal. In electrolytic cells (where electrolysis takes place), the cathode is the negative voltage terminal.